Galaxies . .
A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants, an interstellar medium of gas dust, and an important but poorly understood component tentatively dubbed dark matter. The name is from the Greek root galaxias [γαλαξίας], literally meaning "milky", a reference to the Milky Way galaxy. Typical galaxies range from dwarfs with as few as ten million (100000000) stars, up to giants with a hundred trillion (10000000000000000) stars, all orbiting the galaxy's center of mass. Galaxies may contain many star systems, star clusters, and various interstellar clouds. The Sun is one of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy; the Solar System includes the Earth and all the other objects that orbit the Sun.
Types of Galaxies..
Spiral galaxies are named for the (usually two-armed) spiral structures that extend from the center into the disk. The spiral arms are sites of ongoing star formation and are brighter than the surrounding disk because of the young, hot OB stars(hot and massive stars) that inhabit them. Roughly half of all spirals are observed to have an additional component in the form of a bar-like structure, extending from the central bulge, at the ends of which the spiral arms begin. Our own Milky Way has recently (in the 1990s) been confirmed to be a barred spiral , although the bar itself is difficult to observe from our position within the Galactic disk. The most convincing evidence for its existence comes from a recent survey , performed by the Spitzer Space Telescope , of stars in the Galactic center.
An elliptical galaxy is a galaxy having an approximately ellipsoidal shape and a smooth, nearly featureless brightness profile. They range in shape from nearly spherical to highly flat and in size from hundreds of millions to over one trillion stars. They can be the result of two galaxies colliding.
Most galaxies fit one of the three previously described types, but about 3% of the galaxies we observe are very different. These so-called "irregular galaxies" do not have a lot of common features. Many of them are the results of galaxy collisions or near misses. One type of irregular galaxy is called a "starburst galaxy." Starburst galaxies shine brightly as many new stars are born in a short period of time. Irregular galaxies are usually found in groups or clusters, where collisions and near-misses between galaxies are common.